Empire State Building Contruction – 1931

 Architecture  Comments Off on Empire State Building Contruction – 1931
Mar 132014
 

The Empire State Building is a 103-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft (443.2 m) high.[6] Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world’s tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the World Trade Center’s North Tower in late 1970.[11] Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the US or the world), until One World Trade Center reached a greater height on April 30, 2012.[12] The Empire State Building is currently the fourth-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States (after the One World Trade Center, the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel and Tower, both in Chicago), and the 23rd-tallest in the world (the tallest now is Burj Khalifa, located in Dubai). It is also the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas.

 

The Empire State Building is generally thought of as an American cultural icon. It is designed in the distinctive Art Deco style and has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate.[13] It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[9][14][15] In 2007, it was ranked number one on the AIA’s List of America’s Favorite Architecture.

 

The building is owned by the Empire State Realty Trust, for which Anthony Malkin serves as Chairman, CEO and President.[16]In 2010, the Empire State Building underwent a $550 million renovation, with $120 million spent to transform the building into a more energy efficient and eco-friendly structure.[17] Receiving a gold Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating in September 2011, the Empire State Building is the tallest LEED certified building in the United States.[18]

Design and construction

 

The Empire State Building was designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, which produced the building drawings in just two weeks, using its earlier designs for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio (designed by the architectural firm W. W. Ahlschlager & Associates) as a basis.[20][21] Every year the staff of the Empire State Building sends a Father’s Day card to the staff at the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem to pay homage to its role as predecessor to the Empire State Building.[22] The building was designed from the top down.[23] The general contractors were The Starrett Brothers and Eken, and the project was financed primarily by John J. Raskob and Pierre S. du Pont. The construction company was chaired by Alfred E. Smith, a former Governor of New York and James Farley’s General Builders Supply Corporation supplied the building materials.[2] John W. Bowser was project construction superintendent.[24][25][26]

 

Excavation of the site began on January 22, 1930, and construction on the building itself started symbolically on March 17—St. Patrick’s Day—per Al Smith’s influence as Empire State, Inc. president. This was about the time that the Great Depression started. The project involved 3,400 workers, mostly immigrants from Europe, along with hundreds of Mohawk iron workers, many from the Kahnawake reserve near Montreal. According to official accounts, five workers died during the construction.[27] Governor Smith’s grandchildren cut the ribbon on May 1, 1931. Lewis Wickes Hine’s photography of the construction provides not only invaluable documentation of the construction, but also a glimpse into common day life of workers in that era.[28]

 

The construction was part of an intense competition in New York for the title of “world’s tallest building”. Two other projects fighting for the title, 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building, were still under construction when work began on the Empire State Building. Each held the title for less than a year, as the Empire State Building surpassed them upon its completion, just 410 days after construction commenced. Instead of taking 18 months as anticipated, the construction took just under fifteen. The building was officially opened on May 1, 1931 in dramatic fashion, when United States President Herbert Hoover turned on the building’s lights with the push of a button from Washington, D.C. Coincidentally, the first use of tower lights atop the Empire State Building, the following year, was for the purpose of signaling the victory of Franklin D. Roosevelt over Hoover in the presidential election of November 1932.[29]

Opening

 

The building’s opening coincided with the Great Depression in the United States, and as a result much of its office space was initially unrented. The building’s vacancy was exacerbated by its poor location on 34th Street, which placed it relatively far from public transportation, as Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station were (and are) several blocks away, as is the more-recently built Port Authority Bus Terminal. Other more successful skyscrapers, such as the Chrysler Building, did not have this problem. In its first year of operation, the observation deck took in approximately 2 million dollars, as much money as its owners made in rent that year. The lack of renters led New Yorkers to deride the building as the “Empty State Building”.[30][31] The building would not become profitable until 1950. The famous 1951 sale of The Empire State Building to Roger L. Stevens and his business partners was brokered by the prominent upper Manhattan real-estate firm Charles F. Noyes & Company for a record $51 million. At the time, that was the highest price paid for a single structure in real-estate history.[32]

http://is.gd/BouqJi

Photos: http://is.gd/802lnb

Italy. Ponte di ferro sul Po

 Architecture, Quote  Comments Off on Italy. Ponte di ferro sul Po
Dec 292013
 
Old Bridge by Matteo Sala on 500px

Old Bridge by Matteo Sala on 500px

The bridge of grace will bear your weight, brother. Thousands of big sinners have gone across that bridge, yea, tens of thousands have gone over it. Some have been the chief of sinners and some have come at the very last of their days but the arch has never yielded beneath their weight. I will go with them trusting to the same support. It will bear me over as it has for them.
~ Charles H. Spurgeon

Italy. Ponte di ferro sul Po
Old Bridge by Matteo Sala on 500px
via http://goo.gl/htbxZu

 

Moon Bridge DaHu Park,Taipei,Taiwan

 Architecture, Landscape  Comments Off on Moon Bridge DaHu Park,Taipei,Taiwan
Dec 232013
 
DaHu park

Moon Bridge,Taipei,Taiwan

Dahu Park

Dahu Park, Taipei, Taiwan

article-2150450-134B1D4E000005DC-339_964x651

Morning mist hangs in the calm, still air adding to the dream-like magic of this tranquil setting in Taiwan.

The crystal clear water allows for a perfect reflection of an upside down world, almost playing tricks on the mind.

With scenery like this, it is no wonder that Taiwan was formerly known as the Beautiful Island – Ilha Formosa – to the West.

These remarkable, soft blue, monochrome pictures of The Moon Bridge, in DaHu (Big Lake) Park in Taipei, northern Taiwan, were taken by an arguably talented photographer, known simply as bbe022001 on Flickr.

The park itself in fact sits close to the industrial centre of Taiwan. The northern Neihu district of Taipei is famous for its IT industry and large shopping complexes.

But its parks and impressive mountains, dotted with temples and holy shrines, are unforgettably breathtaking.

Taiwan has more than 200 mountains that soar above 3,000 meters in height, and the unique geology and topography have created countless alluring landscapes and coastal scenes.

Photo by bbe022001 on Flickr.

St. Thaddeus Monastery, Armenian Apostolic Church in Iran

 Architecture  Comments Off on St. Thaddeus Monastery, Armenian Apostolic Church in Iran
Dec 212013
 
St. Thaddeus Monastery

St. Thaddeus Monastery by sabermonajati

Northwestthaddes

Northwestthaddes

Armenian_Monastery_of_Saint_Thaddeus_-_panorama

Armenian_Monastery_of_Saint_Thaddeus_-_panorama

The Saint Thaddeus Monastery (Armenian: Սուրբ Թադէոսի վանք – Sourb Tadeos Vank; Persian: قره‌ کلیسا‎ Ghareh Keliseh, literally “The Great Church”) is an ancient functioning monastery of the Armenian Apostolic Church located in the mountainous area of Iran’s West Azerbaijan Province, about 20 kilometers from the town of Maku.[1][2]

The monastery is visible from a distance because of the massiveness of the church, strongly characterized by the polygonal drums and conical roofs of its two domes. There are several chapels nearby: three on the hills east of the stream, one approximately 3km south of the monastery on the road to Bastam, and another that serves as the church for the village of Ghara-Kilise.

One of the 12 Apostles, St. Thaddeus, also known as Saint Jude, (not to be confused with Judas Iscariot), was martyred while spreading the Gospel. He is revered as an apostle of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Legend has it that a church dedicated to him was first built on the present site in AD 68.[citation needed]

Not much appears to remain of the original church, which was extensively rebuilt in 1329 after an earthquake damaged the structure in 1319. Nevertheless, some of the parts surrounding the altar apse date from the 10th century.

Most of the present structure dates from the early 19th century when Qajar prince Abbas Mirza helped in renovations and repairs. The 19th century additions are from carved sandstone. The earliest parts are of black and white stone, hence its Turkic name Kara Kilise, the Black Church.

A fortified wall surrounds the church and its now-abandoned monastery buildings.

In July 2008, the St. Thaddeus monastery was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List, along with two other Armenian monuments located in the same province: Saint Stepanos Monastery and the chapel of Dzordzor.

http://goo.gl/K5bwKm   http://goo.gl/7Yo57b

 

Sideways

 Architecture, Quote, Urban  Comments Off on Sideways
Dec 142013
 
sideways

sideways

The Difference between a Hero and
a Coward is one step Sideways.
~ Gene Hackman

New York City Photo: http://goo.gl/O4kiBX

 

%d bloggers like this: